Egypt – Ethiopia: A River Runs Through an African Rivalry

The competition to secure water from the Nile River will create problems for Egypt and Ethiopia, much as it has for centuries.

Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on Nile River
Geography dictates that Egypt and Ethiopia will continue competing. However, they probably need to find some common ground despite the ongoing construction of the divisive Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam.

By Stratfor,

Egypt and Ethiopia have been at odds for much of their modern history, perhaps nowhere more so than in their attempts to secure water of the Nile River basin. This particular struggle has been on full display in recent negotiations over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, which is situated on the Blue Nile. The history of competition over the critical waterway provides the context for regional dynamics that will endure long into the future.

Troubled Waters

Treaties lie at the center of controversy between Egypt and Ethiopia over the Nile River, primarily because most of these agreements never included Ethiopia as a signatory. The treaties were tools British colonial officials used in the 19th and 20th centuries to manage relations between their Egyptian and Sudanese holdings.

Ethiopia, which was not a colony, at times negotiated with the British government but never had the same say in regulating the use of the Nile. Understandably, Addis Ababa has often rejected the legal framework established in this period for managing the river. One of Ethiopia’s main concerns is the fact that it, as an upstream country, is not protected in the same way as downstream countries such as Egypt.

From Ethiopia’s perspective, all countries in the basin depend on the water resource. Addis Ababa argues that it should have been invited to take part in initial agreements that set water use terms. Because it was sidelined from the process that laid down the management of the river, Ethiopia has instead pursued self-development projects such as the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam.

These kinds of projects are a problem for Egypt: the Nile is the desert country’s primary source of fresh water and of irrigation for agriculture. For that reason alone, Egypt has and will continue to dominate in use of Nile River water. Without it, Egypt could not survive.

Subtle Means

The most recent major agreement on managing the Nile was reached in 1959, marking the start of the modern history of Nile River relations. It was signed soon after the independence of Sudan in 1956 and Gamal Abdel Nasser’s 1956 rise to power in Egypt. It dictated the amount of water that could be used by each country and established a number of joint projects to limit loss of water from evaporation in certain sections of the Nile. But once again, the agreement did not include Ethiopia.

Of course, Nasser was not oblivious to Ethiopia’s concerns — or to its importance to Egyptian water security. Even before Nasser, Egypt had attempted to gain more control over the Blue Nile, one of the Nile’s major tributaries.

During the 19th century, Egypt tried to invade Ethiopia to gain control over this portion of the basin. But Ethiopian armies deflected the invasion in the coastal areas of modern day northern Eritrea. Even after the failed invasions, Egypt maintained forces in the port city of Massawa (now part of Eritrea) to maintain military options against Ethiopia.

By the time Nasser came to power as Egypt’s president in 1956, Egypt’s military no longer held these areas because the United Kingdom had given up control of the territory. And, in 1952, Eritrea had entered into a federacy with Ethiopia.

Rather than try to force Ethiopia’s hand militarily, Nasser attempted to work with Addis Ababa diplomatically. Moreover, Nasser had a direct connection with Ethiopia’s rulers. During his career as a military officer, he had been stationed in Sudan and had interacted closely with Ethiopian officials.

Nasser failed, however, to convince the Ethiopian emperor to visit Egypt. Despite the interest Ethiopia may have had in collaborating with Egypt on Nile River issues, the style of Arab nationalism Nasser propagated in his country and the region drove a deep wedge between the two countries. Ethiopia considered the ideology a threat to monarchies such as its own. Furthermore, Ethiopians were Africans, not Arabs, so Addis Ababa was suspicious of any potential ulterior motives that may have been guiding Nasser’s attempts to initiate dialogue.

The Ebb of Conflict

In addition, both countries were implicated in Cold War politics. While Nasser’s Egypt was supported by the Soviet Union, Ethiopia was supported by the United States. For Ethiopia, this allegiance presented an existential threat. Communism, of course, staunchly opposes the concept of a monarchy, and Ethiopian rulers rejected communism and all of its agents. Eventually, communism did indeed bring down Ethiopia’s monarchy when the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police, and Territorial Army (a Marxist-Leninist military council often referred to simply as the Derg), took control of the country in 1974. Before then, the monarchy held off interacting with Nasser, forcing Egypt to explore other means of establishing influence over the Blue Nile.

Consequently, Nasser’s government began to undermine the Ethiopian government. By supporting Eritrea and Somalia, Egypt attempted to distract and weaken Addis Ababa by inspiring the Muslim population of Ethiopia to resist the Christian emperor, in part through propaganda operations out of Radio Cairo.

They also provided facilities to Eritrean revolutionaries to broadcast their own propaganda, and even provided military training to Eritreans, many of which went on to become part of the current ruling class following Eritrea’s independence in 1991. Nasser also exploited the ethnic Somali struggle to unify greater Somalia, which spans across southeastern Ethiopia. Egypt provided military support here as well.

However, this interference eventually led to war between Ethiopia and Somalia over the disputed Ogaden region. By this time, communists had come to power in Ethiopia, and Nasser no longer ruled Egypt. Ethiopia’s military eventually defeated Somalia after the Soviet Union sided with Addis Ababa, beginning an era of communism in Ethiopia.

During this period, Anwar Sadat became president of Egypt, and the country’s priorities changed. Ethiopia was in no position to continue its competition with Egypt regardless: It was distracted by internal conflict, not to mention Eritrea’s war of independence. And so, for a time, the two countries’ attempts to undermine one another declined markedly.

Precious Water

But tensions rekindled in 2011, when Ethiopia started the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam near the Sudanese-Ethiopian border. Seeking reassurances that the dam will not endanger the crucial flow of the Nile River, Egypt has taken part in round after round of negotiations. The construction of the dam — and the diplomatic process surrounding it — has since progressed at a slow but steady pace.

Despite collaboration, partially explained by the fact that Egypt simply has few alternatives to halt the dam’s construction, historical concerns between Cairo and Addis Ababa endure. Even now, Ethiopia faces internal unrest driven by ethnic discontent, and accusations of Egyptian support to opposition fighters have again emerged.

Countries such as Saudi Arabia have also reached out, hoping to use the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam as a lever to influence Egypt, which has recently sought greater independence in its Middle East foreign policy, resisting any attempts to bring it further under outside influence.

Geography dictates that Egypt and Ethiopia will continue compete.

80 thoughts on “Egypt – Ethiopia: A River Runs Through an African Rivalry

  1. Every time I read an article like this it reminds me the kind of mistakes that stupid Mengistu has done and how he is still alive, ayyye alem not fair. It also makes me wonder why they keep twisting facts to beat the war drums instead of offering alternatives. The Nile river can only be “controlled” by the maker himself. Ethiopia doesn’t wish to control but use our God given right to benefit not only our people but all the basin countries. Egypt will have its irrigation and cheap electricity from Ethiopia, that’s a win win. Five months left and any chance of using actors has been buried. The only competition Ethiopia would offer would be a healthy one. The days of sending sesame seeds and importing oil or sugar cane and importing sugar will stop. God willing, we might even export the sugar itself to Cairo, TN might report that one. Always hopeful.

      1. He mean this sugar …

        አዲስ አበባ በስኳርና በዘይት ሰልፎች ተጨንቃለች

        (January 3, 2017) – ከአውድ ዓመት መቃረብ ጋር ተያይዞ ለስኳርና ዘይት ግዢ በየወረዳው የሚገኙ የሸማች ማኅበራት ሱቆች ታይቶ የማይታወቅ ረዣዥም ሰልፎችን እያስተናገዱ ይገኛሉ፡፡ በአንዳንዶቹ የኅብረት ሱቆች ወረፋ ከሌሊት ጀምሮ መያዝ እየተለመደ መጥቷል፡፡ በጎላ ሚካኤል ሸማቾች ማኅበር ሰልፍ ከሌሊቱ 11 ሰዓት የሚጀምር ሲኾን የሸማቾች ማኅበር ሱቅ የሚከፈተው ደግሞ ከጠዋቱ 2፡30 በኋላ ነው፡፡

        ስኳር ከሸማቾች ማኅበር ዉጭ ባለ ጥቁር ገበያ እስከ 26 ብር በኪሎ ይሸጣል፡፡ ኾኖም ባለሱቆች በዚህ ዋጋ መሸጣቸው በሕግ እንደሚያስጠይቃቸው ስለሚረዱ ለማያውቁት ደንበኛ በየትኛውም ዉድ ዋጋ ስኳር ለመሸጥ አይፈቅዱም፡፡ ከቅርብ ጊዜ ወዲህ ደግሞ ባለሱቆች ስኳር የሸጡለትን ሰው ሙሉ ስም፣ የቤት ቁጥርና ሙሉ የስልክ አድራሻውን መዝግበው እንዲይዙ ከወረዳ ኃላፊዎችና ደንብ አስከባሪዎች ታዘናል ብለዋል፡፡

        በአሁኑ ሰዓት በየወረዳው ከ5 እስከ 10 የሸማች ማኅበራት ሱቆች ቢኖሩም ከስኳር ፈላጊው ዜጋ ቁጥር ጋር ሊመጣጠኑ አልቻሉም፡፡

        ዜጎች ስኳር፣ ዘይትና የፉርኖ ዱቄት ከነዚህ የሸማች ማኅበራት ሲገዙ የታደሰ የቀበሌ መታወቂያ ወይም ፓስፖርት ሊኖራቸው የግድ ነው፡፡ ፓስፖርት አንቀበልም፣ የቀበሌ መታወቂያ ካልሆነ የሚሉ የሸማች ማኅበራት እንዳሉም ለማረዳት ችለናል፡፡ ነዋሪዎች እነዚህን ሸቀጦች መግዛት የሚችሉት የመታወቂያ አድራሻቸው ከሚገኝበት ሱቅ ብቻ መሆኑን ሌላ ፈተና እንደሆነ ይነገራል፡፡

        1. To have a shortage of sugar in Aids-Abeba is like a shortage of Salt in Eritrea, Truly Sad.
          What do they say in Amharic, “Ye-Aba’yn Lij W’ha Temmat” ?

        2. T think this Web Site belongs to PFDJ, and why did you Post an Ethiopian News??
          You don’t no News about Eritrea? Indeed we have some News but the worst
          If we say something about Eritrea, you will call us “Agame and so on..” But indeed in Eritrean also have too much Problems even the worst one.
          I think it is better to talk about us and look for the Solutions???

          1. Thanks TN i can’t stop laughing.You are not only sharp but funny too. This one is a real classic.One of my favorite character of Dave Chappel.

        1. Try this one, until you will be tired trying what your ethiopian prime minister keep telling us, PM legesse on sugar and scarcity, “the reason why sugar is such a scarce commodity is that becasue ethiopians have started consuming it” eway hifret, that is Legesse zenawi, the same late pm, who promised to feed Ethiopians thrice a day,,,it wasn’t possible during the three Ethio leaders and pm legesses predecessors, it will not be, so long as you keep spending time and resources on fighting a futile war with Eritrea, somalia, and Ethiopian own populace, neither is the world capable of feeding the country, through AID.

    1. Sentiko, the problem is, you are not the kind of people who can make use of the abundant natural resources that are at your disposal. Hence, Egypt would not trust you if you were even to say you will offer them with free Energy… You have 10 major rivers, yet your people are still starving. You are not capable of exporting any produce.! The only thing you can export is trouble,hate, ethnic cleansing and of course Request for Aid and assistance!!
      Accept it, TPLF is doomed … Betraka!!

  2. 1) “And, in 1952, Eritrea had entered into a federacy with Ethiopia.” Uh-oh, no! Eritrea never entered into a federacy with Ethiopia. It was annexed.
    2) Ethiopia knew about the water agreements and agreed to those terms. In return they received benefits from the British. These agreements were signed during the British rule of Egypt. And Haile Selassie was aware of these agreements.
    3) “Egypt tried to invade Ethiopia to gain control over this portion of the basin. But Ethiopian armies deflected the invasion in the coastal areas of modern day northern Eritrea.” Egypt never invade Ethiopia. Most of the battles were done in Sudan. And the only reason they were in Eritrea was to filled the void left by the Ottoman Empire, as Egypt was ruled by the Ottoman Empire for centuries and was known as Ottoman Empire client state.
    4) There was no country called Ethiopia during that time. It was called Abyssinia. Abyssinia represented a region. It was not a country and nor was Ethiopia.

    Correct me, if I am wrong.

    1. Sir, you are absolutely correct. As usual an intentional distortion by Stafford. In early 1870s, it was the Ottoman Empire who tried to expend its control further south in to Abyssinia. Egypt was their anchor state in Africa at the time, enabling them, decades earlier, to expand their rule over today’s West Sudan and North Eritrea areas. Emperor Yowhanse ultimately defeated the Ottoman invading force, mostly comprised of Egyptians, Sudanese, and a few Americans (LOL, but true). Remember, there was not country called Ethiopia at the time, but Abbisnya. BTW, Yowhanse defeated them twice before they even reached Tigray, and he did get help from the British though.

      Now, I am of the opinion that Egyptians are much like Ethiopians who seem to tout history that does not belong to the modern state. Egyptians have deceived themselves to foolishly think they have historical rights to stuff in the region, including the Nile waters. Recently we have seen Egyptian politicians claim Djibouti being under their sphere of influence.

      Anyhow, I can be corrected if I am wrong but the Egyptians themselves never negotiated these treaties they claim. In fact they are not treaties, rather the Ottoman and the British empires rules how the Nile water should be used WITHIN their colonies – ie Sudan and Egypt.

    2. Oh where to begin with this history slaughtering you just did. For now it’s okay, let’s stay on the topic, we shall return to our history you copy paste on the regular basis. Just can’t believe we can’t find one to defend this agreement we knew about or proper history of Yohaness. Smh

      1. Yohannes was an Agame Warlord. He’s got nothing to do with Eritrea. Whatever yohannes did was in his Agame region. So much of Ethiopian history is just legend. It’s not true history. Just like they claim The Ark of Noah is there but you are not allowed to see it. Such bullshit!!!! Most of Ethiopian history is FALSE. They claim Menelik was live child of Solomon and Queen Sheba. FALSE! He was just a regular Amhara. They claim they were never colonized. FALSE. So much falsehood.

        1. They claim Menelik was the Love Child of King Solomon and Queen Sheeba. Such falsehood! Most Ethiopian history is made up. The historian Basil Davidson has pointed that out.

        2. What the hell are you talking about ? Your source should be from sawa university history books i.e recently edited.
          በል ተምሃር
          Following the 1889 death of Emperor Yohannes IV, Gen. Oreste Baratieri occupied the highlands along the Eritrean coast and Italy proclaimed the establishment of the new colony of Italian Eritrea, a colony of the Kingdom of Italy. In the Treaty of Wuchale (It. Uccialli) signed the same year, King Menelik of Shewa, a southern Ethiopian kingdom, recognized the Italian occupation of his rivals’ lands of Bogos, Hamasien, Akkele Guzay, and Serae in exchange for guarantees of financial assistance and continuing access to European arms and ammunition. His subsequent victory over his rival kings and enthronement as Emperor Menelek II (r. 1889–1913) made the treaty formally binding upon the entire territory.
          እንታይ ኢካ ዘርባዕባዕ ዘብለካ ዘሎ ? You can not edit,rewrite and delete history unless you are thinking like time machine or worm hole travelling in time.

          1. If you are about facts? The tale of the Queen of sheeba and King Solomon producing a child Menelik did not start untill the Solomonic dynasty after the fall of the Lalibela dynasty. So, if you are not under the spell of romanticism there are no mention of the Menelik tale in any book written before the Solomonic dynasty. Facts are facts. Romanticism could be confused with reality. For instance, the Jamaicans believe that king Hailslasie is God.

          2. Mengstito, you know how to pick pasta only.ኣያ ሕማቅ ዘረባ ፅ ቡቅ ኣይኮነን፡፡ ወይ ጊዜ ተገልቢጡ

          3. Here is fact for you: Tigrayan warlords raided Eritrean villages for almost a century, till the Italians invaded and put a stop to their madness. The scars is still there in many Eritrean villages – stories of how Tigrian warlords plundered Eritrean homes and farms.

            By a modern standard Yowhanse II could be considered a warlord himself, similar what you find in Somalia today.

          4. Eritrea before Italy occupation ? Really? ጥልያን ኣብቲ ጠጠው ዘበሎ ቦታ ኤርትራ ተባሂሉ ::ዓድዋ ወይ ከዓ ዓድግራት ጠጠው ተዝብል ነይሩ እቲ ቦታ ኤርትራ ክበሃል ነይሩ እዩ:: እቲ ዝተቆፃፀሮ ቦታ ኤርትራ ክበሃል ክኢሉ እዩ:: ናይ ኤርታራ አፈጣጥራ እዚ ይመስል ::እዚኣ ማለተይ ግን ናብ ካሊእ ከይትወስዳ ሓደ ኢና ሓደ ንኩን ማለተይ ኣይኮንኩን:: እዚ ክስተት ኣብ ቡዝሕ ሓገራት ዝርአ እዩ::ሓዱሽ ኣይኮነን

          5. You know what I meant. It helps then, I will use the old name.. Mereb Milash. Other than that I take it you agree with me. Besides, no one disagree Eritrea was born resulting from Italian occupation, just like Libya of Italia, Kenya or British Emp, etc.

        3. I leave the facts to historians and scholars.My point is there was a small monument for that brutal warlord ALULA in Dogali near Massawa in a mountain hill claiming he defeated the Italians there i saw it my self.But 1990 Shaebia on their way to capture Massawa,they can’t not stand the sight of it some of the fighters,destroyed it with out even asking their commander. After that when they entered Massawa they blew the monument of that midget Hailesslassie into pieces,What a sight to see.I lived in Massawa for some time.I remember there was a legendary mentally retarded Eritrean man,he use to go to that monument every day around 6;00 pm and curse loudly telling Hailesslassie to come down from that horse and to get lost.He use to say it “ANZEL YA NEJICE”.the Ethiopian soldiers left him alone knowing he is crazy.But to us Eritreans he was saying it for all of us who can’t say it out loud. I hope he was alive that day 1990 to see it.He could still be alive too any information about that special man.? from former’s i will treasure it so do thousands Who made their day enjoyable everyday for saying it what we all want to say . This is for Sentek and Asmerom to remind him how much we hate his heroes Alula,Yowhanes and all their contemporaries.

          1. The reason why they destroy monument or segment of the monument was because Ras Alula was a traitor. Why and How he was a traitor, the documentary or article didn’t explain. I just remember watching a documentary or reading about it.

          2. YapiYapo Eritreans hate Alula for his atrocity,blunder and out right crime against Eritreans.Sorry my English is limited to describe his nature.But i respect you for knowing only the segment of the monument was destroyed.Like i said it in my comment they just did it without plan on their way .One of those who was there told me the only regret was they wasted precious heavy ammunition and destroyed a segment of it.But the Massawa Hailesslassie monument was well planed by the demolition unit and well is in video for everybody to see for eternity.

    3. Let me help ya here
      1. If Woyane’s version agree with the neutral article here ,probably their version is the real history not the one created in the last 20 years
      There was a heated debate and finally the first and last democratically elected Eritrea parliament voted for reunion and reunion had a strong support specially among the highlanders…I am sure they won’t tell you this.
      2. Ethiopia made it’s opposition in 1959 clear, unfortunately neither Egypt nor Sudan thought Ethiopia’s position was worth considering…this is a public record
      3 Ethiopia and Egypt fought the battle of Gundet and the battle of Gura, in both occasions Yohannes IV of Ethiopia decisively defeated the invading Egyptian army, Both battles took place in modern day Eritrea, this is just history , it won’t take iota from the current sovereignty of Eritrea. The good thing about fact it will remain fact regardless of you believe it or not.

      once again I am sorry that world history a little bit differs from the Eri-TV. version

      1. Yes, there were factions and puppets that wanted Eritrea united with Ethiopia. And Ethiopia was trying to influence those decisions by various mechanism. Nevertheless in the end, Eritrea was annexed.

        It wasn’t Egypt and Sudan that didn’t think much of Ethiopia. It was the British. British did this to benefit their colonies Egypt and Sudan. In return Ethiopia got various benefits from British. Which is weird on why the British would stick it to Ethiopia considering, they were and still are Ethiopia’s friend. The British give numerous weapons to Yohannes IV, after he helped them overthrow Tewodros II. Yohannes IV used those same weapons to battle the Egyptian and Sudanese.

        I don’t own a TV.

      2. While you’re at it, the British gave the name ethiopic (blackish) to your country in 1937. Historical fact that your ethiopianist would not tell you. Historical fact, Eritrean armed struggle started after king Hailslasie threw away the federation agreement. Just like the TPLF is not honoring the Algerian agreement. The irony is that Ethiopia is going to disintegrate because of federalism issue that is based on Ethnicity. One of the problems in Ethiopia is that Ethiopians believe might is right. So, brother know thyself first.

        1. Small correction Hizbawi the Eritrean armed struggle started 1961 one year before Hailesslassie officially threw the federation and annexed Eritrea 1962.The reason being in those 10 years of forced Federation 1952-1962 he was eroding all the agreements and dismantling the little autonomy we had,like changing our official language Arabic and Tigringa to Amharic and so on so on.The Eritrean people saw were things are heading,after they tried peaceful demonstration was fatal,they opted for armed struggle.And i agree with your last paragraph history repeating itself FEDERALISM will never work in Ethiopia,for a simple reason they don’t believe in equality of every Ethnic group.Their history is the winner takes it all.Which is a proven recipe for faile and disintegration.

      3. FYI, do you know that Alula king Yohanis’ general was Eritrean? Do you know that the TPLF hero Hayelom is Eritrean? Do you know that the closest language to Geez is spoken only in Eritrea? Do you know that 85% of Eritreans speak Geez based language? Do you know that the oldest Geez writing are found in Eritrea? So, Eritrea is the source. Ethiopia exists because of Eritrea. Therefore, first Eritrea then Ethiopia. So, stop your BS.

        1. You are singing to the choir, if it’s true i have no problem with your statements. Although history revisionists might hate you for pointing out the two countries deep relationship. About the name Ethiopia , i am not sure when exactly Absynians started to call themselves Ethiopia but at least as early as 1899 Emperor Minilik repeatedly refer himself the king of Ethiopia and he refers the country Ethiopia in his phonograph message to Queen victoria, you can check the english subtitle if you don’t speak amharic(

          1. The “phonograph” message I think, and just what I was able to hear, is talking about “buna” is this something about coffee? My amharic is limited…sorry I guess sugar was a luxury then as it is now use salt it is as good.

          2. You can just turn on the subtitle option and there is an english translation in the subtitle. He started with ” I king of Ethiopia to Queen of the great english people…”.and he signed of with ” May God help us that Ethiopia and England may remain in peace and friendship..”.the audio quality is poor as you can imagine but buna is not mentioned in the phonograph.

          3. Ok, let’s treat this subject academically. First and for most it’s the Europeans that use the words Abyssinia and Ethiopia. Abyssinia came about because of the Portuguese and Spanish trying to pronounce the word ‘Habesha’ (means diverse in Ge’ez). Spain and Portugal were ruled by the Arabs for like 700 years.
            Ethiopia is just a Greek word for black. In Europe the Bible was translated from Greek to Latin, and then to English. In the Greek Bible, blacks are called Ethiopians. When the British empire was becoming powerful their source of knowledge of Africa came from Arabs and the Bible.
            During medieval times Europeans knew of black Christian kingdom. So, I would not be surprised if king Menelik used the terms Europeans used to communicate to the British. The British did not use the word Habesha.
            So, why did Habesha (known in Europe as Abyssinia) changed its name to Ethiopia? It has to do meanly because of the British. Why you may ask? Because of Sudan. See, Sudan means Black in Arabic. Actually, Sudan means Ethiopia. Drinking the world war II when the British was modeling the modern world order to its liking, Sudan became the Islamized blacks and Ethiopia as Christianized blacks in the horn of Africa. To this day that is how Europeans see the horn of Africa as Islamized or Christianized Blacks. The Europeans do not care about our pre Islam or pre Christian history or any of our history for that matter.

            Now, Eritrea and Ethiopia do not have separate history from the horn of Africa. Eritrean people do not believe that they are different from Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Djibouti. So, why didn’t the union between Eritrea and Ethiopia work? Well, because of Hailslasie and Derg regimes. So, what does the future hold? As far as Eritreans are concerned, Eritrea would never join the modern day Ethiopia. However, Eritreans are open to United States of Horn of Africa that is not under the yoke of Arabs, Europeans, or any other foreign power mentally or physically.

          4. Great job, man! I agree with every sentence you wrote here. If I would add one thing: the Aithiopes (Ethiopians) that the Greeks were referring to mostly likely were Nubians who we know they use to live in the modern Sudan area.

            BTW, Ethiopia can not be Habesha b/c most Ethiopians are not. Besides, if there are such thing Habesha at all, in Ethiopia Tigrayans could be considered one (I am LOL, Meles said once I am a Yemenise — his chameleon-like ability to convince the Yemenise to work with him against Eritrea. Anyhow, the Amahra and Gurage are not pure Habesha, as they are mixed with Oromos and other locals. Why do you think the Amharas have lost their ability to use/pronouns certain Geez alphabets?

          5. Well, Habesha just means diverse. The Horn of Africa including Egypt before the Arab occupation used to be called Habesha because of its diverse ethnicities. Pre Christianity there was a religion that believed in one God and had a naturalist point of view. Amenhotep (Akhenaten) was the founder of monotheistic religion. I think some Oromo and Kunama people still practice that religion. So, the idea of Habesha is old. However, the word Habesha has been used and abused for religious and political purposes.

            Some people allocated the word Habesha to the north Ethiopia and Eritrea, but that is wrong. The only reason people say that is because European linguistics classified the Geez languages as Semitic to suite their racist idealogy.

          6. Why did the Amharas lost their ability to use/pronounce certain Geez alphabets? The Simple answer is because majority of them were not native Geez/Amhara speakers. The majority of Amhariña speakers are an aggregate of many Ethnic groups that became Geeziezed/Amharazed overtime. Today, the convergence of many ethnic groups in Addisabeba is creating new kind of Amhariña that is difficult to understand.

          7. You put it as if in 1945 Britain wake up and says you are Ethiopia, you are Eritrea, you are Sudan..These names has long rooted meanings, sources indicates the name Ethiopia was there for a long time, first to describe black African then to modern day Ethiopia. A 1902 Encyclopedia Britanica 10th edition says “Abyssinian call themselves itiopyan or Menghesta Itiopia, The Kingdom of Ethiopia”. And a 15th century book called the book of Axum claims King Ezana of Axum renamed the then kingdom to Ethiopia,

            History should be separated from current politics and emotions. I am not ultra nationalist , I don’t care if it was named in 4th century or 20th.
            In fact nationalism makes you irrational( note: read ” I hate qondafat agames” comment below slating you for not subscribing to his fundamentalist view. I am from Southern part of Ethiopia, the history of Axum is more close to Eritrean highlanders than me.

          8. Well, the only thing I have to say is that you have to look at from different angles. From internal point of view, from external point of view, religious point of view. On top of that each era has its own distinct world point of view. You have to take all the angles under consideration. Just for your information. Nigeria, Niger, Mauritania, Sudan, Ethiopia mean black in European and Arab languages. It’s amazing that the Africans did not call themselves or their nations black in African languages.

        2. After reading Noah comment and reading yours, which one of you skipped sawa history class? Did they cover the 1937 name we received from Britain? I am willing to bet if injera can speak and tell you it originated from Ethiopia, you would stop eating. Let me give you advice, go home for few months, leave the google alone and ask your family to count two three generations back, that might change your perspective just a little. While you are at it, go to Axum and wash your mouth with holly water, no toothpaste needed.

          1. Fuck Axum,you would not even let the Muslim residents of Axum to build a mosque or to get berried in their hometown Axum.You stupid Agames are Taliban,ISIS of Christianity.

        3. Are you saying Ras Alula is Eritrean? He may have lived in Eritrea, but everything I have read indicates he is Tigray. And I am assuming you are talking about Hayelom Araya. He was born in Addi Nebreid. So how is he Eritrean?

          1. I hate qondafat agames. · Edit

            Brother YapiYapo:
            Everyone needs to be aware of these awful snakes, worst of the worst agames. Writing what people what Eritreans want to hear mixed with their own posion. Your right alula was an agame a criminal agame who commited alot of crimes against Eritreans.

            Read the following what “Hizbawi” wrote in another comments……..

            “Now, Eritrea and Ethiopia do not have separate history from the horn of Africa. Eritrean people do not believe that they are different from Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Djibouti. So, why didn’t the union between Eritrea and Ethiopia work? Well, because of Hailslasie and Derg regimes.”

            Fact of the matter is Eritrea and Ethiopia were always separate entities, but now we see agames trying to revise history. But pay special attention to the line, “why didnt the union between Eritrea and Ethiopia work? Well, because of hailesilasie and derg regimes…..”, basically saying that if these Ethiopian regimes treated Eritreans well, Eritrea and Ethiopia would of been one, because “they dont have separate history”according to the snake.

            In another comment he writes… “Do not defile and profane the holy tsion of Axum with your deceitful and conning evil TPLF spirit”, gloryfing history of agames, as most of us who are well informed of our history, are well aware of the lies and fiction that dominates the northern part of Ethiopia. So i would not expect such behavior from an Eritrean. There is currently a war against our Porud Eritrean identity, people need to start opening up their eyes.

          2. Don’t worry. Eritrea was built by the blood and bone of our people. No one is going to take away our Eritrean identity from us. It is in our blood and DNA.

          3. Hayelom Araya’s parents are from Areza, Eritrea and he is my distant cousin. Ras Allula’s parents are from Aella-Gundet, Eritrea. Ethiopians are not in a business of telling the truth.

          4. You have to understand something. The Western section of modern Tigray was under the Bhare-negash domain. Traditionally, the Western modern day Tigray never saw themselves as Tigray. Traditionally speaking Tigray is east of Axum (Agazians). The Western Tigray with Eritrea is Ge’ezawiyan. So, that is one of the reasons why the wolkait people say that they are not Tigrayans. The majority population of Western Tigray have more ancestral lineages with Eritrea than with Eastern Tigray.

          5. Sir, with all due respect YapiYapo is right. Your claim about Ras Alula is new to me and many others here. You may be very well right but since it is an extraordinary claim and we will need an extraordinary evidence for me and others to go along with it. Remember Woyane agents are trolling this site.

          6. Well, he have to go to the Eritrean country side and talk to the elders. Allula is a descendant of the Adikme-Meliga family clan of Seraye. To prove, it needs lots of work. If you happen to go to Aella-Gundent, talk to the people there. He still have relatives of his clan there. Hayelom Araya is very easy to prove because he is my cousin and his niece is my neighbor here in the states.

    4. ~
      ዕጽድ ዕጽድ፣ ክርትም፣ ክርትም ክርትምትም፣ ኣርግፍ፣ ኣርግፍ – – – ኵምር።

      ሓራም ደቂ እእ እ ኤ አ አ አ ሬ – – – ቀያሕ! – – – ዘይከአሉ።
      “ምስማር” = nail on እብሉኹም እዝታት’ዩ።

      ዘርባዕባዕ በዓል “ስንጥቝ” – – – ከም ፈልገ ኒል፣ ክከዓው’ወ።

  3. This article is written completely from Ethiopia’s perspective. The history is really distorted. But I am not surprised. In fact, I expected something like this. TPLF agents have been involved in “revenge editing” with respect to Eritrean history on Wikipedia pages. If you bring up Eritrea, or Asmara or Massawa on Wkipedia, you will find that it is written from Ethiopia’s perspective to the point that all of Eritrea is Ethiopia. If you edit the page to reflect true ERITREAN history, then it reverts back the next day to what it was before so that it tells the story and pictures from Ethiopia’s viewpoint. I don’t know who controls these pages. While Eritreans are asleep, TPLF has redefined Eritrean history to read like Tigray’s history. And guess who refers to Wikipedia for a quick history lesson? Lazy Western reporters and everyone else. Eritreans better wake up and set their history straight on wkikipedia and other online resources. Otherwise, this will be repeated again and again. TPLF’s revenge editing is having some success because it is being picked up for quick references.

    1. Well said, Sir. Well said. “While Eritreans are asleep, TPLF has redefined Eritrean history to read like Tigray’s history.”

      In my view, Eritrea has been abandoned by its educated folks. Dr.Tekie Fessehatzion, RIP, was the only one I know who did his best for his country without being sidetracked by the smaller issues.

    2. The problem is you have an army of Ethiopians seating around coffee shops and paid bots doing all the editing. You and I can literally open a Wikipedia account and make changes to those Wikipedia pages. My brother who is a professor at Northwester University has a Wikipedia page that someone has created. When he goes to correct or change information about himself. Someone else goes back and changes the information. He even notified Wikipedia. He give up, after awhile.

      1. I agree folks. Something needs to be done about it. It’s getting really bad. I have noticed Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) now routinely says Tigrayans in Eritrea and Ethiopia or Tigrayans on both sides of the border or something like that. That’s the Weyane narrative. If we don’t fight it, it will become our history by default. Today’s journalists don’t read books anymore.

        1. If it makes you feel better I emailed Stratfor. But yes, something needs to be done about disenfranchised, miss leading information, propaganda and revisionist history.

      2. According to Wikipedia guideline “Editing a biography about yourself is acceptable only if you are removing unambiguous vandalism or clear-cut and serious violations of our biography of living persons policy”, was your brother removing a vandalism or clear cut violation? otherwise it’s illegal to edit your biography.

          1. No, Wikipedia has guidelines, you can’t just edit your biography as you wish. First it should be true and you need to have a source
            Secondly wiki moderators cannot know if you are really the person you are claiming to be. Do you think the moderators shouldn’t say anything if I said I am Isaias Afewerki and then edit the president page as I wished?

        1. My brother was modifying or removing information about him that was not true. But this was a long time ago, during the early to mid years of Wikipedia. They could have better guidelines and ways to moderator the pages now.

          1. They simply ask you your motive or reason. I wrote them lengthy explanations with politically motivated articles. I remember for a brief period they had the lie from COI about people at nevsun being used for underground mining with emphasis on “slave labour”. Sent them vid/info about nevsun having an open pit mine. I ‘ve not seen that up in a while so i guess there is a little success.

          2. It strikes me as curious that anyone can write something on a sovereign countries page tho. Regardless of fact or fiction it seems to me like a country should be in control of its information. We should have someone in Eritrea or overseas checking the page every day with a copy/paste ready to go. Wiki is the first place people go too these days.

      3. Hearing your story about someone close to you having such problems gives a good insight to how bad this problem is. I have had no success on doing this. I just do it periodically when im at my home computer on the weekends.

    3. ኣሌክ - Alec you · Edit

      Well said bro/sis. Evil begins in small steps.. ስለዚ ሸለል ዘይ ምባል!!
      For our beloved Eritrea!!????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

    4. I’v edited the wiki page over a dozen times literally. I don’t think it can be kept concrete unless our goverment is involved in it. Especially the parts considering human rights. Almost no wiki pages have a “human rights section” But ours is just full blown COI/woyane propaganda.

      1. The government needs to do better in terms of managing the country’s wiki page, and history by various outlets. But the government has too much on it’s plate with trying to develop the country. But I agree with everything you wrote. Citizens have to get involved and help correct this nonsense as well.

  4. The nonsense of this writer that goes by STRAFOR name continues. He must be an idiot.
    — Strangely, the article doesn’t mention that Egypt was ruled by the Ottoman Empire, as were the coastal areas of Eritrea (and northern Eritrea) long before the Pasha forces invaded the coastal areas of what is now Eritrea in 1876.
    — Strangely, the article doesn’t mention that if the Nile River were of any value to anybody in those days, the British expedition force of 1867 which precipitated the suicide of Ethiopian king Tedros in Magadala would have seen to it that something was done towards that end. After all, the Suez Canal was nearing completion when the British expedition reached Magdela.
    — Strangely, the writer doesn’t mention that a country called Israel came into being in 1948 to the Middle East. This fact was the main mover of the geo-politics of the region after the Suez war of 1956. What actions Haile Selassie, Nasser and the USA took was affected by this important fact.

  5. I cannot believe this article it is totally thrush .I think it is written in the Ethiopia point of view .Ethiopians has to walk up to research their own history .The Haile Slasie change entire Ethiopian history .The two British Father and daughter re-Wrought t the Ethiopian History completely destroyed it .It is Like Weyane is destroying the Ethiopia by writing about Abay Tigray.I hope Profesor Mesfun Weldemariam read this and hope will give An answer .

  6. I recently read an iinterview of Dr Areagwi Berhe and when they asked him that he and his colleagues from Weyane why they wrote that Ertra is a colony?he said they were wrong and they were Young and that they have not read alot and now they have repented much,I have not listned to him when he said it but I’ve read him…he was Close to Crying.What is happening to them,worked well their head?it is a fairy tale for all human.I promis you if they were a metal I can made them again at the factory and renewed them again.

        1. ደድሕሪ አተጸለለ ስለዝኽድኩ?
          I honestly thought he wrote in another language and it was
          translated by the computer.

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